By Goran Bergman
I. advent 3
II. tools 7
1. fabric and means of recording 7
2. movie research 7
three. The meteorological info 9
III. The id of the migrants 10
IV. the rate and path of migration thirteen
1. the rate of flight and its dependence on a variety of exterior and internal
2. The course of migration and the criteria affecting it 21
three. The effect of topographical components at the path 36
V. The influence of meteorological elements at the depth of migration 44
1. power and path of the wind 45
2. Cloudiness 47
three. Visibility 49
four. Temperature 50
VI. The geographical distribution of the migration 50
References fifty seven
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Extra resources for An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland
Open circles day migration, filled circles night migration. = = 46 G. Bergman & K. 0. Donner : Spring migration () 0 14 r3 () >-.. � ,0 O> a () <»:> � 0 � j � II I I • • I i _J • 5 Speed increase, m sec 10 FIG. 21 . The intensity of migration in relation to the speed increase or decrease produced by the wind. The degree of overcast indicated in each case by the degree of filling of the circles. Circles with squares denote cases with full or nearly full overcast (� 75 %) which have not been included in the statistical treatment.
11 60 % 50 % . in daylight is still possible when there is a night the limit is slightly lower, about 30° and 50° are also suggests that celestial orientation cloud-cover whereas i n the I t is, however, evident that although flight i n the direction which, according to the above argument, indicates celestial orientation is excluded when cloudiness exceeds a certain limit, the birds still even with a fully overcast sky have some ability to migrate in an approximately correct direction, although they rarely do so.
O l . = = = day 50 G. Bergman & K. 0. Donner : and on the other hand SE-E Spring migration winds and low visibility may indicate that the weak correlation observed in Fig. 23 is an effect not due to changes in visibility at all but related to the direction of the wind . 4. Temperature Because the migration studied is concentrated to only two weeks and because the temperature of the sea water, showing hardly any variation from day to day, is a factor that largely determines the air temperatures encountered by birds resting on the water, as is the case with the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck, an analysis of a possible short-term effect of temperature on the intensity of migration would appear to be unfruitful.
An analysis of the spring migration of the Common Scoter and the Long-tailed Duck in southern Finland by Goran Bergman