By John F. Watts
Generally revised and up to date with extra fabric integrated in current chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an obtainable creation to the major spectroscopic concepts in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of contemporary tools and techniques.
* encompasses a precise word list of key floor research phrases.
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Additional resources for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES
To obtain images via this route, additional lenses are required in the spectrometer. These must also be equipped with a two-dimensional detector. 16 shows schematically how the method works. The photoelectrons pass through lenses 1 and 2 in the transfer lens assembly, producing a photoelectron image of the specimen surface at some plane within the lens column after each lens (the image planes). Lens 3 is operated such that its focal length is equal to the distance between the lens and the second image plane.
7 process. X-rays strike the parallel crystal planes at an angle 8 and are reflected at the same angle. The distance travelled by the X-rays depends upon the crystal plane at which they are reflected. 3 shows two adjacent crystal planes with X-rays being reflected from each. If the distance between the planes is d then the difference in the path length is 2dsin 0. If this distance is equal to an integral number of wavelengths then the X-rays interfere constructively, if not destructive interference takes place.
The small area of emission from the tip into a small solid angle provides a high brightness compared with thermionic sources, although the total current will be somewhat lower. The emitter material usually employed is a tungsten single crystal. A cold field emitter in a practical Auger system will provide very small spot sizes and therefore excellent spatial resolution, but suffers from a lack of long-term stability unless operated in an extremely good vacuum ( <10 -10 mbar). The presence of residual gases close to the emitter will have two destabilizing effects.
An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES by John F. Watts