An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES by John F. Watts PDF

By John F. Watts

ISBN-10: 0470847123

ISBN-13: 9780470847121

Generally revised and up to date with extra fabric integrated in current chapters and new fabric on perspective resolved XPS, floor engineering and complimentary methods.
* comprises an obtainable creation to the major spectroscopic concepts in floor analysis.
* presents descriptions of contemporary tools and techniques.
* encompasses a precise word list of key floor research phrases.

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Additional resources for An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES

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To obtain images via this route, additional lenses are required in the spectrometer. These must also be equipped with a two-dimensional detector. 16 shows schematically how the method works. The photoelectrons pass through lenses 1 and 2 in the transfer lens assembly, producing a photoelectron image of the specimen surface at some plane within the lens column after each lens (the image planes). Lens 3 is operated such that its focal length is equal to the distance between the lens and the second image plane.

7 process. X-rays strike the parallel crystal planes at an angle 8 and are reflected at the same angle. The distance travelled by the X-rays depends upon the crystal plane at which they are reflected. 3 shows two adjacent crystal planes with X-rays being reflected from each. If the distance between the planes is d then the difference in the path length is 2dsin 0. If this distance is equal to an integral number of wavelengths then the X-rays interfere constructively, if not destructive interference takes place.

The small area of emission from the tip into a small solid angle provides a high brightness compared with thermionic sources, although the total current will be somewhat lower. The emitter material usually employed is a tungsten single crystal. A cold field emitter in a practical Auger system will provide very small spot sizes and therefore excellent spatial resolution, but suffers from a lack of long-term stability unless operated in an extremely good vacuum ( <10 -10 mbar). The presence of residual gases close to the emitter will have two destabilizing effects.

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An Introduction To Surface Analysis By XPS And AES by John F. Watts

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