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By Peter B. Golden

ISBN-10: 344703274X

ISBN-13: 9783447032742

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Phonology vacillation of ofu, ô/ü -g > -u, -g >y intermediary -gj -g > v "reduction of vowels in intermediary syllables, a dulling typical of the entire Volga-Kama region" (includ. CuvaS, Mari, Udmurt) o > u, ô >ü, u > 'h, ü > h, ii/e > i, i > h, 1 > 'h CHAPTERONE 23 c >s, s > s (Qazaq, Qaraqalpaq, sometimes elsewhere) y > j (Qazaq, Qaraqalpaq, Ozbek-Q1pcaq, sorne Tatar c > s, s > h (East BaSqurt), j > y, -s-, -s > l> (South Ba5qurt), VdV, wdV, rdV, ôdV > ŒV/WN; z > êl, -·gj-g > wjQ'l3 Modern Populations: Qaraim : 3,341 (scattered in USSR) and in small groups in Poland.

They reside now in Turkey (numbers are uncertain). Circassians/Cerkes this is a collective name for three closely related, if not identical, peoples, ali of whom use the ethnonym Adyge as weil : Western Adyge are termed Adyge (108,711 in Adyge Autonomous Oblast' in the Western North Caucasus). ). The Central grouping is called Cerkes ( 46,470 in the Karacay-Cerkes Autonomous Oblast'). aSak, Kasâk, QâSâq, in Rus' Kacor, in Greek ZlXO( {cf. Georg. Jik'-i) and later Kauax6ç (cf. Oset. Koesoeg). The ethnonym Cerkes {Arab.

62-63; Grac, Drevnie kocevniki, pp. ), Nomads, p. 97. 8 Gryaznov, Southem Siberia, pp. 134-6,153-58, 193. 9 Gryaznov, Southem Siberia, pp. 219,233. 10 Simmons, Changing, pp. 100,145; Jacobson, Burial Ritual, p. 2. Barclay, The Horse, p. " Lattimore, Inner Asian, pp. 54-65,158-163, attributes the development of "steppe society," on the Chinese frontier, largely to environmental factors, moving populations away from agriculture to "pastoral resources," and choice, as the land could be exploited in several ways.

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An Introduction to the History of the Turkic Peoples: Ethnogenesis and State-Formation in Medieval and Early Modern Eurasia and the Middle East by Peter B. Golden


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